Where I always get stuck

I’m writing my Bachelor’s thesis, and I can’t get my head around the following question.slavery-vs-human-trafficking

So, as I hope you can also tell, there is definitely some overlap, yet they are not necessarily the same. The more you research this question, the more confused you may get. I do. Did I mention case law? Also something to consider if you really want to dive in deep. I do. Some argue that human trafficking is a lesser crime than slavery, whereas other academics think it may be worse due to the element of fraud or coercion.

I’ll come back to this question once I know, well, more than I do now.

(1) The Women’s Caucus (composed of representatives from women’s and children’s groups), The Advocacy Project, On the Record: Your link to the Rome conference for the establishment of an International Criminal Court, Volume 1, Issue 14, July 7, 1998 (Accessed via http://www.advocacynet.org/archives/the-creation-of-the-international-criminal-court-1998/ 28.1.2017)

(2) The Guardian https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/dec/21/un-more-children-and-men-falling-prey-human-trafficking-migration-crisis, Al Jazeera http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2016/12/slavery-trafficking-victims-crippled-fear-uk-161231111517043.html, The Huffington Post has a series on human trafficking called “Why I Free Slaves” (one edition of it: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/free-the-slaves/why-i-free-slaves-psychol_b_13752780.html), Independent http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isis-forced-us-to-pray-then-raped-us-yazidi-survivor-nadia-murad-describes-life-as-a-sex-slave-in-a6792676.html

(3) http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/global-report-on-trafficking-in-persons.html (accessed 20.1.2017): “UNODC report on human trafficking exposes modern form of slavery”

(4) Bradley Myles, CEO of Polaris. “The national human trafficking hotline is a lifeline for victims of modern slavery in America.” https://polarisproject.org/news/press-releases/2015-human-trafficking-hotlines-data-released (accessed 20.01.2017)

(5) 1926 Slavery Convention, Article 1(1)

(6) M. Cherif Bassiouni, International Crimes: Jus Cogens and Obligatio Erga Omnes, 1997, Law and Contemporary Problems [Vol. 59: No. 4], p. 66-68

(7) 1926 Slavery Convention, Article 1(2)

(8) 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 7(2)(c)

(9) 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 7(1)(c)

(10) 2000 UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Article 3(a)

(11) 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, Article 1

(12) 2000 UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Article 3(a)

(13) J.E. Penner, The Concept of Property and the Concept of Slavery; in The Legal Understanding of Slavery: From the Historical to the Contemporary edited by Jean Allain, Oxford University Press, 2012; p. 251-252

(14) UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights: “Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences”, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Slavery/SRSlavery/Pages/SRSlaveryIndex.aspx (accessed 23.2.2017)

(15) UN Economic and Social Council, E/CN.4/Sub.2/AC.2/2006/1 21 June 2006, Commission on Human Rights, Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights* Working Group on Contemporary Forms of Slavery Thirty-first session 24-28 July 2006 Provisional Agenda